The main anomalies of the intestinal transit

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What is meant by anomalies of the intestinal transit? The word “anomaly” in itself relates to a fault, to what deviates from normal. From a medical point of view, we are speaking about certain disabilities in the development or, in other words, the deviation in the normal development of an organ or several organs (because there may be several organs whose function and structure changed).
In general, anomalies or malformations are determined by: certain genetic factors or those chromosomal mutations, external factors such as infections and a combination of genetic environmental factors which have determined anatomical changes.

Anomalies may appear in children – and these are related to paediatrics or they may appear in adults and here bear the name of intestinal anomalies or anomalies of the intestinal transit. Since birth or in early childhood we can observe most of the anomalies which may affect a person, namely: atresia duodenal fistula, duodenal stenosis, congenital megaduodenum, ectopic anus, congenital megacolon, and intestinal doubling.

The intestinal nerve disturbances can affect the body very much and result in a significant increase in part of the colon or the entire colon. Such an abnormality in development which may affect certain people is the megacolon, or in other words congenital megacolon. This deformation occurs due to the lack of ganglionic cells diagnosis in the nervous plexus, one cell nerve (which are in the wall of the large intestine) and it is called aganglionic megacolon or Hirschsprung’s disease. These cells help with the normal flow of the nutritious residue supply in large intestine. If Hirschsprung’s disease appears, the patient will suffer from chronic constipation, inflammation, infections and the inability to evacuate the faeces due to the fact that the intestinal muscles are no longer contracting. The disease appears most often in males and it is fortunately very rare. Congenital megacolon may not have ganglionic vegetative cells with a lesion substrate and that is why it is also called idiopathic megacolon in medical terms. These anomalies are determined by endocrine diseases, mental diseases, avitaminosis, irritations of the colon, constipations chronic or segmental dilatations of the colon and others. On the other hand, there is a form of symptomatic congenital megacolon which is showing obvious organic lesions on the outer anorectal channel and on the level of the perianal region.

The area between the buttocks is also called a sacrococcygeal area. In this area of the body, there may appear a tumefaction of the skin or a chronic infection at its level, which is known to be the pilonidaldisease. It is a pilonidal cyst on the sacrum, at the base of the buttocks line. Sometimes more cysts may appear and these could be painful, especially when that person sits or walks. While they infect, they build up and eliminate pus with shreds of blood. A rare form of this pilonidal disease is the endoanal sinus affecting the perianal skin or the circumferential skin of the anus and thus leading to the development of fistulae or cracks in the anal canal.

Congenital anomalies of the area sacrococcygeal are in the form of cysts, tumours, vesicles or highly varied and complex malformations. The most important ones are the congenital fistulae and the dermoid cysts appearing in the sacrococcygeal area. These problems affect congenital patients very much, and the doctors have reported cases in which patients felt infirm, they came to the point of committing suicide because they were convinced that they had cancer and even got to be affected by certain mental diseases. Such congenital fistulas and dermatoid cysts are ailments which appear quite often and which can be solved by removing the affected tissue. They are congenital but there are situations where they cannot be detected or observed by the sick person and thus, will show much later, when they are bigger, when they are swelling and when they cause discomfort.

Part of the anomalies of intestinal transit is duodenal atresia which represents the lack of a duodenal segment. This can be turned into a colon fibre, without lumen and structure. From a medical point of view, this is called a neonatal occlusive syndrome and it requires a surgical operation.
Due to foreign bodies in the duodenum, the lack of vitamins, incorrect drug consumption, the ingestion of irritant or improper foods from the point of view of hygiene, allergies, infections, all these are generally part of the obstacles in the gastro-intestinal tract – the patient may suffer from acute duodenitis or, in other words, it he may suffer from inflammation of the duodenal membrane mucous. The symptoms are: vomiting and diarrhoea, abdominal and epigastric pains, a bitter taste in the mouth, headaches, weight loss, nausea from sour, sweet or fat foods, and problems with intestinal transit.
Another anomaly is the narrowing of the lumen in certain areas or all over its surface and this bears the name of duodenal stenosis. If the malformation is complex, it generally appears in the neonatal period. The main symptoms are: nausea, vomiting, gastric juice, dehydration of the body, the impossibility of eliminating faeces. If the anomaly is incomplete, it is possible that the first symptoms of chronic constipation, vomiting with gluey secretion of bile and abdominal pains appear at the age of 10-15. Doctors recommend surgical treatment in both cases.

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