Botulinic toxin is one of the most powerful biological toxins and is created by the bacterium Clostridium botulinum. It stops the acetylcholine discharge from the nervous terminations towards the muscles, blocking abnormal commends that come from the brain. As a result, muscular spasms and painful states no longer appear. In general, the brain sends signals towards the muscles for them to function. Such signals firstly reach the spine, then the nervous terminations and the muscles, due to acetylcholine. There are cases in which certain problems of the brain or spine can lead to sending abnormal messages towards the muscles, which leads to muscular spasms and abnormal positions, accompanied by pain.
Botulinic toxin is used in small quantities, as using it in large doses can lead to the paralysis of all the muscles in the body and death. There are more types of botulinic toxin, of which the most important ones are type A and B. These are used in doses established by specialists in the treatment of affections manifested through painful muscular spasms. Botulinic toxin is found on the market under the name Botox. After injecting the correct dose at the level of certain muscles, its effect starts to be felt in maximum 2 weeks and lasts for as much as 3 months. After this period, the botulinic toxin needs to be injected again to obtain the desired effect and ameliorate painful symptoms. The correct dose should never be exceeded or it can lead to the apparition of an infectious disease called botulism.
By injecting this toxin, one experiences the same pain as in the case of a normal injection and slight bleeding. The used needles are very thin to that the pain is reduced. The injection is always performed by a specialist who knows exactly the right muscles, dosage and other important aspect related to the procedure.
In certain cases, temporary side effects may appear. Of these, we mention difficulties related to swallowing (when the toxin is injected in the neck), the impossibility to squeeze the hand normally (when the injection was made in the arm), sensations of dry eyes, seeing double or drooping eyelids (when the injection was made close to the eyes), the impossibility to raise the eyebrow (when the injection was made in the forehead to eliminate wrinkles). Also, one can have cold and flu-like symptoms, states of tiredness and dizziness, temporary facial pain, sickness, redness in the area where the injection was made, weakness in the muscles of the face. If the injection is not made by a specialist, so the right muscles are not chosen, the toxin may affect other muscles and the organs close to them.
Botulinic toxin treatments:
- Botulinic toxin is used to calm convulsive spasms and to ameliorate sweating in the area of the hands, feet and armpits. Excessive sweating has the name of hyperhidrosis and is manifested through the excessive production of sweat (more than necessary to adjust the temperature of the body). This is a problem of the sympathetic nervous system and causes the increased activity of the sweat glands from the feet, palms and armpits. By using injection with botulinic toxin, the amount of sweat can be reduced by 70-90%. Treating hyperhidrosis with botulinic toxin is an alternative method in order not to use surgery to remove the sweat glands. The treatment is temporary, needing to be repeated from time to time.
- The wrinkles on the face are treated with Botox Cosmetic. Plastic surgeons use botulinic toxin in aesthetic medicine in order to remove wrinkles, as its efficiency is extraordinary.
Botulinic toxin helps the treatment of an affection called cervical dystonia, which causes neck pain and an abnormal position of the head.
- Strabismus or crossed eyes can be ameliorated with the help of botulinic toxin.
- Abnormal muscular contraction can be stopped with the help of this biological toxin.
- Hemifacial spasms can be stopped with the help of the botulinic toxin too.
- Those who suffer from the uncontrolled closing of the eyelids, more exactly blepharospasm, can use the treatment with botulinic toxin.
- Headaches are ameliorated by injecting this toxin.
- Arm and leg dystonia and hyper-salivation are treated with the help of the botulinic toxin as well.
- Also, botulinic toxin is used to reduce the spasticity that appears due to cranium trauma, multiple sclerosis, vascular accidents or cerebral palsy.
Botox is not indicated for people who suffer from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and pregnant women.